Cohn had bought the project for Wayne, but Wayne's grudge was too deep, and Cohn sold the script to Twentieth Century Fox , which cast Peck in the role Wayne badly wanted but for which he refused to bend. His portrayal of a heroic copilot won widespread acclaim. The first movie in which he called someone "Pilgrim", Ford's The Searchers , is often considered to contain Wayne's finest and most complex performance. Wayne was nominated as the producer of Best Picture for The Alamo , one of two films he directed.
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The other was The Green Berets , the only major film made during the Vietnam War in support of the war. Wayne took on the role of the eponymous detective in the crime drama McQ His last film was The Shootist , whose main character, J. Books, was dying of cancer—which Wayne himself succumbed to three years later. The Shootist contains numerous plot similarities to The Gunfighter of nearly thirty years before, a role which Wayne had wanted but turned down.
Batjac , the production company cofounded by Wayne, was named after the fictional shipping company Batjak in Wake of the Red Witch , a film based on the novel by Garland Roark. A spelling error by Wayne's secretary was allowed to stand, accounting for the variation. With a total of 25 years on the list, Wayne has more appearances than any other star, surpassing Clint Eastwood 21 who is in second place. In later years, Wayne was recognized as a sort of American natural resource, and his various critics, of his performances and his politics, viewed him with more respect.
Abbie Hoffman , the radical of the s, paid tribute to Wayne's singularity, saying, "I like Wayne's wholeness, his style. As for his politics, well—I suppose even cavemen felt a little admiration for the dinosaurs that were trying to gobble them up. Throughout most of his life, Wayne was a vocally prominent conservative Republican in Hollywood, supporting anti-communist positions.
Roosevelt in the presidential election and expressed admiration for Roosevelt's successor, fellow Democratic President Harry S. His personal views found expression as a proactive inside enforcer of the "Black List" denying employment and undermining careers of many actors and writers who expressed their personal political beliefs earlier in life. Declassified Soviet documents reveal that, despite being a fan of Wayne's movies, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin according to some sources contemplated assassination of Wayne for his frequently espoused anti-communist politics.
Wayne supported Vice President Richard Nixon in the presidential election of , but expressed his vision of patriotism when John F. Kennedy won the election: "I didn't vote for him but he's my president, and I hope he does a good job. Due to his status as the highest profile Republican star in Hollywood, wealthy Texas Republican Party backers asked Wayne to run for national office in , as had his friend and fellow actor Senator George Murphy.
He declined, joking that he did not believe the public would seriously consider an actor in the White House. Instead, he supported his friend Ronald Reagan 's runs for Governor of California in and He was asked to be the running mate for Democratic Alabama Governor George Wallace in , but he rejected the offer  and actively campaigned for Richard Nixon;  Wayne addressed the Republican National Convention on its opening day.
For a while, he was also a member of the anti-communist John Birch Society. Wayne openly differed with the Republican Party over the issue of the Panama Canal , as he supported the Panama Canal Treaty in the mids;  conservatives had wanted the U. Wayne was a close friend of the late Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos Herrera , and Wayne's first wife, Josephine, was a native of Panama. His support of the treaty brought him hate mail for the first time in his life.
In May , Playboy magazine published an interview with Wayne, in which he expressed his support for the Vietnam War,  : and made headlines for his opinions about social issues and race relations in the United States:  . With a lot of blacks, there's quite a bit of resentment along with their dissent, and possibly rightfully so. But we can't all of a sudden get down on our knees and turn everything over to the leadership of the blacks. I believe in white supremacy until the blacks are educated to a point of responsibility.
I don't believe in giving authority and positions of leadership and judgment to irresponsible people. I don't feel we did wrong in taking this great country away from the Indians. Our so-called stealing of this country from them was just a matter of survival. There were great numbers of people who needed new land, and the Indians were selfishly trying to keep it for themselves. In the same Playboy interview, Wayne calls the two lead characters in Midnight Cowboy "fags" for the alleged "love of those two men". I know all about that. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal.
But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load I believe in welfare—a welfare work program. I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living.
I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim. In March , the Playboy interview resurfaced, which resulted in calls for John Wayne Airport to be renamed. Wayne was married three times and divorced twice.
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Pilar was an avid Tennis player. Several of Wayne's children entered the film and television industry; Wayne's son Ethan was billed as John Ethan Wayne in a few films, and played one of the leads in the s update of the Adam television series. His stormiest divorce was from Esperanza Baur, a former Mexican actress.
She believed that Wayne and co-star Gail Russell were having an affair, a claim which both Wayne and Russell denied. The night the film Angel and the Badman wrapped, there was the usual party for cast and crew, and Wayne came home very late. Esperanza was in a drunken rage by the time he arrived, and she attempted to shoot him as he walked through the front door. Wayne had several high-profile affairs, including one with Marlene Dietrich that lasted for three years and one with Merle Oberon that lasted from to Wayne's hair began to thin in the s, and he had begun to wear a hairpiece by the end of the decade.
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Not mine, but real hair. Bell Jr. It is perhaps best shown in these words he had engraved on a plaque: 'Each of us is a mixture of some good and some not so good qualities. In considering one's fellow man it's important to remember the good things We should refrain from making judgments just because a fella happens to be a dirty, rotten SOB.
Wayne biographer Michael Munn chronicled Wayne's drinking habits. He underwent successful surgery to remove his entire left lung  and four ribs. Despite efforts by his business associates to prevent him from going public with his illness for fear that it would cost him work, Wayne announced he had cancer and called on the public to get preventive examinations. Five years later, Wayne was declared cancer-free. Wayne has been credited with coining the term "The Big C" as a euphemism for cancer.
He became a member of the York Rite. It was sold by his estate at his death. Wayne's yacht, the Wild Goose , was one of his favorite possessions. He kept it docked in Newport Beach Harbor , and it was listed on the U. National Register of Historic Places in Wayne always wore the same revolver in all the westerns that he appeared in.
Although he enrolled in a cancer vaccine study in an attempt to ward off the disease,  Wayne died of stomach cancer on June 11, , at the UCLA Medical Center. Tomorrow is the most important thing in life. Comes into us at midnight very clean. It's perfect when it arrives and it puts itself in our hands. It hopes we've learned something from yesterday. Among the cast and crew who filmed The Conqueror on location near St. The film was shot in southwestern Utah , east of and generally downwind from the site of recent U. Government nuclear weapons tests in southeastern Nevada.
Many contend that radioactive fallout from these tests contaminated the film location and poisoned the film crew working there. Wayne's enduring status as an iconic American was formally recognized by the U. On May 26, , he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. Robert Aldrich , president of the Directors Guild of America , made a particularly notable statement:.
It is important for you to know that I am a registered Democrat and, to my knowledge, share none of the political views espoused by Duke. However, whether he is ill disposed or healthy, John Wayne is far beyond the normal political sharpshooting in this community. Because of his courage, his dignity, his integrity, and because of his talents as an actor, his strength as a leader, his warmth as a human being throughout his illustrious career, he is entitled to a unique spot in our hearts and minds.
In this industry, we often judge people, sometimes unfairly, by asking whether they have paid their dues. John Wayne has paid his dues over and over, and I'm proud to consider him a friend and am very much in favor of my government recognizing in some important fashion the contribution that Mr. Wayne has made.
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He had attended Carter's inaugural ball in "as a member of the loyal opposition", as he described it. A larger than life-size bronze statue of Wayne atop a horse was erected at the corner of La Cienega Boulevard and Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California , at the former offices of the Great Western Savings and Loan Corporation, for which Wayne had made a number of commercials. Several celebrations took place on May 26, , the centennial of Wayne's birth.
Wayne's films ran repetitively at the local theater. Wayne rose beyond the typical recognition for a famous actor to that of an enduring icon who symbolized and communicated American values and ideals. There's so goddamn few of us left. We got to play strong, tough characters.
Not these weak queers. Wayne's rise to being the quintessential movie war hero began to take shape four years after World War II, when Sands of Iwo Jima was released. His footprints at Grauman's Chinese theater in Hollywood were laid in concrete that contained sand from Iwo Jima. Wayne is the only actor to appear in every edition of the annual Harris Poll of Most Popular Film Actors, and the only actor to appear on the list after his death. Wayne has been in the top ten in this poll for 19 consecutive years, starting in , 15 years after his death.
The John Wayne Cancer Foundation was founded in in honor of John Wayne, after his family granted the use of his name and limited funding for the continued fight against cancer. Newport Beach, California -based John Wayne Enterprises, a business operated by Wayne's heirs, sells products, including Kentucky straight bourbon , bearing the "Duke" brand and using Wayne's picture.
When the company tried to trademark the image appearing on one of the bottles, Duke University in Durham, North Carolina , filed a notice of opposition. According to court documents, Duke has tried three times since to stop the company from trademarking the name. The company sought a declaration permitting registration of their trademark. The company's complaint filed in federal court said the university did "not own the word 'Duke' in all contexts for all purposes. Between and , Wayne appeared in over one hundred and seventy films, and became one of America's biggest box office stars. Only Clark Gable sold more tickets than Wayne, although the ticket prices were not commensurate since, although both actors started their careers at the same time, Gable's career height preceded Wayne's by approximately fifteen years.
The category's nominees for each year in which Wayne was nominated are shown, with that year's winner highlighted in yellow. The Golden Globe Awards are presented annually by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association HFPA to recognize outstanding achievements in the entertainment industry, both domestic and foreign, and to focus wide public attention upon the best in motion pictures and television. The Cecil B. It was named in honor of Cecil B. DeMille — , one of the industry's most successful filmmakers; John Wayne won the award in In , The Harvard Lampoon , a satirical paper run by Harvard University students, invited Wayne to receive The Brass Balls Award, created in his "honor", after calling him "the biggest fraud in history".
Harvard Square had become known for leftist intellectualism and protest throughout the s and s. Wayne accepted the invitation as a chance to promote the recently released film McQ , and a Fort Devens Army convoy offered to drive him into the square on an armored personnel carrier. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see John Wayne disambiguation. American actor. Winterset, Iowa. Los Angeles , California. Josephine Saenz m. Esperanza Baur m.
Pilar Pallete m. Play media. Wayne's most enduring image is that of the displaced loner uncomfortable with the very civilization he is helping to establish and preserve At his first appearance, we usually sense a very private person with some wound, loss or grievance from the past. At his very best he is much closer to a tragic vision of life Main article: John Wayne filmography. Biography portal.
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John Wayne: American. New York: Free Press. The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, Retrieved July 30, Government Printing Office. The Numbers. Retrieved March 29, Reel Classics. Retrieved March 25, Davis University of Oklahoma Press. May 13, Archived from the original on June 6, The Telegraph. Retrieved October 27, London: Robson Books. Glendale High School. Archived from the original on May 1, Retrieved May 21, Davis May 1, Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade Publishing. Retrieved March 11, Trojan Family Magazine.
University of Southern California. Archived from the original on February 10, Retrieved February 1, Famous gamblers, poker history, and texas stories. John Wayne: The Life and Legend. Think Quest: Library. Vallarta Tribune. May 19, Creating Country Music: Fabricating Authenticity. University of Chicago Press. October 25, Retrieved November 23, The Life and Times of the Western Movie.
Gallery Books , pp. Not Thinkin' Just Rememberin' BearManor Media. Television: The Business Behind the Box. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Archived from the original on August 6, Retrieved May 19, Archived from the original on April 10, Retrieved April 10, Retrieved August 29, Archived from the original on December 21, Films in Review , Volume 28, Number 5, May , pp. Archived from the original on July 18, Retrieved April 2, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar.
John Wayne - Movies, Children & Death - Biography
The Daily Telegraph , April 6, The Biography. Retrieved December 7, September 25, March 16, Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 23, The Tribune News. Retrieved March 6, Oxford University Press. East Idaho News. Retrieved March 2, Nash Country Daily. Retrieved January 23, Click4hair Informational Blog. Accessed July American Association for Cancer Research.
He also participated in numerous student theatrical productions. Winning a football scholarship to the University of Southern California, Wayne started college in the fall of He joined the Sigma Chi fraternity and continued to be a strong student. Unfortunately, after two years, an injury took him off the football field and ended his scholarship. While in college, Wayne had done some work as a film extra, appearing as a football player in Brown of Harvard and Drop Kick Out of school, Wayne worked as an extra and a prop man in the film industry.
He first met director John Ford while working as an extra on Mother Machree Walsh is often credited with helping him create his now legendary screen name, John Wayne. Unfortunately, the western was a box office dud. For nearly a decade, Wayne toiled in numerous B movies, mostly westerns, for different studios. He even played a singing cowboy named Sandy Saunders among his many roles. During this time period, however, Wayne started developing his man of action persona, which would serve as the basis of many popular characters later on.
Working with Ford, he got his next big break in Stagecoach Wayne portrayed the Ringo Kid, an escaped outlaw who joins an unusual assortment of characters on a dangerous journey through frontier lands. During the trip, the Kid falls for a dance hall prostitute named Dallas Claire Trevor. The film was well-received by moviegoers and critics alike and earned seven Academy Award nominations, including one for Ford's direction.
The film was adapted from a play by Eugene O'Neill and follows the crew of a steamer ship as they move a shipment of explosives. Along with many positive reviews, the movie earned several Academy Award nominations. Around this time, Wayne made the first of several movies with German actress and famous sex symbol Marlene Dietrich. The two appeared together in Seven Sinners with Wayne playing a naval officer and Dietrich playing a woman who sets out to seduce him. Off-screen, they became romantically involved, though Wayne was married at the time. There had been rumors about Wayne having other affairs, but nothing as substantial as his connection to Dietrich.
Even after their physical relationship ended, the pair remained good friends and co-starred in two more films, Pittsburgh and The Spoilers Wayne started working behind the scenes as a producer in the late s. The first film he produced was Angel and the Badman Over the years, he operated several different production companies, including John Wayne Productions, Wayne-Fellows Productions and Batjac Productions.
Wayne's career as an actor took another leap forward when he worked with director Howard Hawks in Red River The western drama provided Wayne with an opportunity to show his talents as an actor, not just an action hero. Playing the conflicted cattleman Tom Dunson, he took on a darker sort of character. He deftly handled his character's slow collapse and difficult relationship with his adopted son played by Montgomery Clift. Taking on a war drama, Wayne gave a strong performance in Sands of Iwo Jima , which garnered him his first Academy Award nomination for Best Actor.
Playing an American boxer with a bad reputation, his character moved to Ireland where he fell in love with a local woman O'Hara. This film is considered Wayne's most convincing leading romantic role by many critics. A well-known conservative and anticommunist, Wayne merged his personal beliefs and his professional life in 's Big Jim McLain.
He played an investigator working for the U. House Un-American Activities Committee, which worked to root out communists in all aspects of public life. Off screen, Wayne played a leading role in the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals and even served as its president for a time. The organization was a group of conservatives who wanted to stop communists from working in the film industry, and other members included Gary Cooper and Ronald Reagan. In , Wayne starred in another Ford western, The Searchers , and again showed some dramatic range as the morally questionable Civil War veteran Ethan Edwards.
He soon after reteamed with Howard Hawks for Rio Bravo Playing a local sheriff, Wayne's character must face off against a powerful rancher and his henchmen who want to free his jailed brother. The unusual cast included Dean Martin and Angie Dickinson. Wayne made his directorial debut with The Alamo Starring in the film as Davy Crockett , he received decidedly mixed reviews for both his on- and off-screen efforts.
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Continuing to work steadily, Wayne refused to even let illness slow him down.
Related History for Kids: An Interactive Biography of John Wayne for Children
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